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B3 L4

1.  Sorry for keeping you waiting.
   原句應為I am sorry for keeping you waiting.。
   keep + O + OC (V-ing/V-en/adj./prep. phrase)
3. apologize to sb (for sth) (為…)向某人道歉
3. after arriving . . . 此處為分詞構句省略了主詞
4. Trying to be polite, Vicky forced a smile . . .
    此處為分詞構句,省略了連接詞和主詞Vicky,原句應為
    Because Vicky tried to be polite, she forced a smile . . .
5. force a smile/laugh 強作笑顏
8.  go on 發生 (= happen)
9. 
 It seemed that Adam was more interested in
   → Adam seemed to be more interested in . . .
9.  be interested in 對…感興趣 (= take/have interest in)
10. 
 have a conversation with sb 與…談話
11.  Vicky為專有名詞,故關係子句須用非限定用法(補述用法),
15.  Why don’t/doesn’t + sb + V? 某人何不…?
18. Apparently = It is apparent that…
     be preoccupied with
20.Adam was more attached to his cell phone than
     he was (attached) to her.
21.be attached to 喜歡
24. be similar to 和…相似
27.. . . made this product gradually become . . .
       make為使役動詞
28.rather than=instead of
30.as a result 因此 (= therefore, thus, hence, consequently)
32.people (who are) affected by disconnect anxiety .
35. get access to 有管道可以得到
36. Some . . . Some . . . Others . . .有些…有些…還有些…
      也可用Some . . . Others . . . Still others . . .。
36. respond to 回應
37. so . . . that . . . 如此…以致於…
       S + had + been + V-ing . . . 過去完成進行式
39. without one’s knowledge 某人不知情
     suffer from遭受
41. additionally = in addition = besides
      keep (on) + V-ing 持續…
43. contact (n.) 聯絡人
        to kill time. to表目的(=in order to、so as to)
45. can’t afford to V 負擔不起
     bring sth (along) with sb 帶…一起
47. insist on +Ving 堅持
     → . . . they will insist that they (should) go home
47. cell n. [C] 手機 (= cell phone,)監獄

50.  as (準關代) 如同

51. advise sb to V 勸(某人) 做…
        When doing something important,
        分詞構句,原句應為When we do something important . . .
52.turn off 關掉 (=switch off, turn/switch on)
53. concentrate on 專注
54. as for sb/sth「關於…,至於…」
54. we suggest that he (should) leave his cell phone . . .
S1+ V1 . . . + as if + S1/S2 + were/V2-ed/had V2-en . . .

as if    彷彿是、就像是…
其引導的子句有兩種情形:
第一種,as if所接的子句內容可能為真,as if後使用直述法。
第二種是as if所接的子句不可能為真或者跟事實相反,其引導子句需用假設語氣。

本課主要介紹第二種。當as if子句的動作發生時間跟主要子句的動作發生時間相同,則使用as if + S1/S2 + were/V2-ed,例:
◊ Emma looked sad as if she were dying.
  (→ Emma當時看起來很悲傷,好像她就快死了一樣。)
These customers talk loudly in the restaurant as if they owned it.
  (→ 這些顧客在餐廳裡高聲談話彷彿這裡是他們開的一樣。)

當as if子句的動作發生時間早於主要子句的動作發生時間,則as if子句需使用過去完成式had + V2-en,例:
◊ Now, the living room looks messy as if a bomb had exploded.
  (→ 客廳現在看起來很亂,彷彿有炸彈爆炸過一樣。)
◊ When the party was over, the living room looked messy as if a bomb had exploded.
  (→ 派對結束後,客廳看起來很亂,像是有炸彈爆炸過一樣。)

若as if子句用來描述可能發生的事情,則使用直述句,例:
◊ It looks like as if it is going to rain.
  (→ 看起來好像要下雨了。)
The soup tastes as if it was not seasoned.
  (→ 這湯喝起來好像沒有調過味。)

文法加油站
as if後面不一定會接完整的句子,有時候當前後子句主詞一致,從屬子句可以寫成不定詞片語。這種情形在從屬子句有「顯露出、表示出」涵義的時候特別常見,例:
◊ Hayden patted me on the back as if he was saying, “You’ve done a great job!”
  Hayden patted me on the back as if to say, “You’ve done a great job!”
 
 
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